One thing is certain: one cannot begin with man, because that would be to begin with a bourgeois idea of “man”, and because the idea of beginning with man, in other words the idea of an absolute point of departure (= of an “essence”) belongs to bourgeois philosophy. This idea of “man” as a starting-point, an absolute point of departure, is the basis of all bourgeois ideology; it is the soul of the great Classical Political Economy itself. “Man” is a myth of bourgeois ideology: Marxism-Leninism cannot start from “man”. It starts “from the economically given social period”; and, at the end of its analysis, when it “arrives”, it may find real men. These men are thus the point of arrival of an analysis which starts from the social relations of the existing mode of production, from class relations, and from the class struggle. These men are quite different men from the “man” of bourgeois ideology.
“Society is not composed of individuals “, says Marx. He is right: society is not a “combination”, an “addition” of individuals. What constitutes society is the system of its social relations in which its individuals live, work and struggle. He is right: society is not made up of individuals in general, in the abstract, just so many copies of “man”. Because each society has its own individuals, historically and socially determined. The slave-individual is not the serf-individual nor the proletarian-individual, and the same goes for the individual of each corresponding ruling class. In the same way, we must say that even a class is not “composed” of individuals in general: each class has its own individuals, fashioned in their individuality by their conditions of life, of work, of exploitation and of struggle — by the relations of the class struggle. In their mass, real men are what class conditions make of them. These conditions do not depend on bourgeois “human nature”: liberty. On the contrary: the liberties of men, including the forms and limits of these liberties, and including their will to struggle, depend on these conditions.
If the question of “man” as “subject of history” disappears, that does not mean that the question of political action disappears. Quite the contrary! This political action is actually given its strength.by the critique of.the bourgeois fetishism of “man”: it is forced to follow the conditions. of the class struggle. For class struggle is not an individual struggle, but an organized mass struggle for the conquest and revolutionary transformation of state power and social relations. Nor does it mean that the question of the revolutionary party disappears — because without it the conquest of state power by the exploited masses, led by the proletariat, is impossible. But it does mean that the “role of the individual in history”, the existence, the nature, the practice and the objectives of the revolutionary party are not determined by the omnipotence of “transcendence”, that is, the liberty of “man”, but by quite different conditions: by the state of the class struggle, by the state of the labour movement, by the ideology of the labour movement (petty-bourgeois or proletarian), and by its relation to Marxist theory, by its mass line and by its mass work.
Ben Affleck speaks about Islamophobia X
ON BILL MAHERS ISLAMOPHOBIC ASS SHOW GO AWFF AND EID MUBARAK BROTHERS AND SISTERS
OMG im not mad at him for playing as batman anymore
You go on with your bad self, Ben Affleck.
Dear Ben Affleck: I love you. Thank you for saying this.
1) Primera Herida: El nuevo modelo de Copérnico
En este primer punto, Freud habla de cómo el hombre creyó que la Tierra, su hogar, se encontraba en el centro del universo, y que el resto de astros se movían alrededor de ella describiendo órbitas. Entonces llegó Nicolás Copérnico en el…
September 12th 1977: Steve Biko dies
On this day in 1977, South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Bantu Biko died aged 30 while in police custody in Pretoria. Biko founded the Black Consciousness Movement and coined the famous phrase “black is beautiful”. He had been a target long before his arrest on August 18th 1977, having been censored and ‘banned’ by the apartheid government in 1973 and had his movement in his country restricted. Upon his arrest, Biko was brutally tortured and beaten during police interrogations which lasted almost 24 hours, eventually dying from head injuries on September 12th. The police claimed he died due to a hunger strike, but it was clear his death was caused by police violence after his arrest. The authorities’ flimsy protestations of innocence fooled very few, and the truth about Biko’s death caused widespread outrage. His killers were never bought to justice, but due to his high-profile Biko’s family were able to secure financial compensation from the South African government. He was a hero of black South Africans for his activism, but since his tragic death Steve Biko has also become a martyr for his cause and a symbol of the anti-apartheid movement.
"They had to kill him to prolong the life of apartheid" - Nelson Mandela on Steve Biko
Things the Israel/Palestine conflict is about
- Land use
Things the Israel/Palestine conflict is not about
Things the Israel/Palestine conflict is not
- A conflict
Things it is
- Settler colonialism
- Military occupation
July 24 2014
Writer Refaat Alareer, who comes from Shujaiya, was able to identify the exact location of the incident in the video above and the photographs below.
“The video took place in the main street of Shujaiya, near the eastern edge of the border” with Israel, Alareer told The Electronic Intifada. “The area is highly populated and a little bit far from the borders.”
“I am amazed how the Israelis managed to hit them while this far into Shujaiya,” he said of the images and video showing shelling of the area.